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Contributions to the study of the behavior of lower organisms [electronic resource] / by Herbert S. Jennings.

By: Jennings, H. S. (Herbert Spencer), 1868-1947.
Series: Carnegie Institution of Washington publication ; no. 16. Publisher: Washington, D.C. : Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1904Description: 256 p. : ill. ; 26 cm.Subject(s): Physiology, Comparative | Infusoria | Amoeba | Irritability | Physiology, Comparative | AmoebaAdditional physical formats: OriginalOnline resources: Fulltext available via EBSCOhost - Shibboleth login required Also issued in print.
Contents:
Reactions to heat and cold in the ciliate Infusoria -- Reactions to light in ciliates and flagellates -- Reactions to stimuli in certain Rotifera -- The theory of tropisms -- Physiological states as determining factors in the behavior of lower organisms -- The movements and reactions of Amoeba -- The method of trial and error in the behavior of lower organisms.
Summary: "To explain the movements of organisms toward or from a source of stimulus, we find given almost universally in one shape or another a certain general formula. This is the schema set forth, with unessential variations, by Verworn (1899) for the orientation of a ciliate or flagellate infusorian to a one-sided stimulus, and by Loeb (1897) for the tropisms of organisms in general. Essentially, the schema is as follows: An agent acting upon the organism from one side causes the locomotor organs of that side to contract either more strongly or less strongly than those of the opposite side. In the former case the animal is turned away from the source of stimulus, till it comes into a position in which the motor organs of the two sides are similarly affected. Then progressing straight forward, it of course moves away from the source of stimulus (negative taxis or tropism). If the motor organs on the side most affected are caused to contract less strongly than those on the opposite side the organism is necessarily turned with anterior end toward the source of stimulus; then its usual forward movements take it toward the source of stimulus (positive taxis or tropism). Loeb lays especial stress on the direction from which the stimulus comes, as it is this that determines which side shall be most strongly affected by the stimulus; otherwise the theory as he sets it forth is essentially like that held by Verworn. Both these authors apply this schema to the movements of organisms to and from many sorts of stimuli, making it a general formula for taxis or tropisms. In the present series of papers the writer proposes to examine the behavior of a number of lower organisms, in order to determine whether the reactions to the usual stimuli take place in accordance with this tropism schema or not, and if not, to determine the real nature of the reaction method"--Book. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
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"The first five papers were prepared at the Zoological Laboratory of the University of Michigan and were submitted to the Carnegie Institution for publication August 1, 1903. To the third paper some additions were made in February, 1904. The sixth and seventh papers were prepared at the Naples Zoological Station, while the writer was acting as research assistant of the Carnegie Institution, and were transmitted for publication in January and March, respectively, 1904"--Pref.

Bibliography: p. 253-256.

Reactions to heat and cold in the ciliate Infusoria -- Reactions to light in ciliates and flagellates -- Reactions to stimuli in certain Rotifera -- The theory of tropisms -- Physiological states as determining factors in the behavior of lower organisms -- The movements and reactions of Amoeba -- The method of trial and error in the behavior of lower organisms.

"To explain the movements of organisms toward or from a source of stimulus, we find given almost universally in one shape or another a certain general formula. This is the schema set forth, with unessential variations, by Verworn (1899) for the orientation of a ciliate or flagellate infusorian to a one-sided stimulus, and by Loeb (1897) for the tropisms of organisms in general. Essentially, the schema is as follows: An agent acting upon the organism from one side causes the locomotor organs of that side to contract either more strongly or less strongly than those of the opposite side. In the former case the animal is turned away from the source of stimulus, till it comes into a position in which the motor organs of the two sides are similarly affected. Then progressing straight forward, it of course moves away from the source of stimulus (negative taxis or tropism). If the motor organs on the side most affected are caused to contract less strongly than those on the opposite side the organism is necessarily turned with anterior end toward the source of stimulus; then its usual forward movements take it toward the source of stimulus (positive taxis or tropism). Loeb lays especial stress on the direction from which the stimulus comes, as it is this that determines which side shall be most strongly affected by the stimulus; otherwise the theory as he sets it forth is essentially like that held by Verworn. Both these authors apply this schema to the movements of organisms to and from many sorts of stimuli, making it a general formula for taxis or tropisms. In the present series of papers the writer proposes to examine the behavior of a number of lower organisms, in order to determine whether the reactions to the usual stimuli take place in accordance with this tropism schema or not, and if not, to determine the real nature of the reaction method"--Book. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

Also issued in print.

Electronic reproduction. Washington, D.C. : American Psychological Association, 2011. Available via World Wide Web. Access limited by licensing agreement. s2011 dcunns

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